Mathematical abilities: some results from factor analysis / John B. Carroll -- The Process of understanding mathematical problems / Richard E. Mayer and Mary Hegarty -- When erroneous mathematical thinking is just as 'correct': the oxymoron of rational errors / Talia Ben-Zeev -- On the shoulders of giants: cultural tools and mathematical development / Kevin F. Miller and David R. Paredes -- Culture and children's mathematical thinking / Geoffrey B. Saxe [et al.] -- Biology, culture, and cross-national differences in mathematical ability / David C. Geary -- Toby's math / Herbert P. Ginsburg -- Fostering mathematical thinking in middle school students: lessons from research / John D. Bransford [et al.] -- On different facets of mathematical thinking / Tommy Dreyfus and Theodore Eisenberg -- Structuralism and mathematical thinking / Charles Rickart -- What is mathematical thinking? / Robert J. Sternberg.