Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)
Adaptive antiviral defense mechanisms, in archaea and bacteria, based on DNA repeat arrays called CLUSTERED REGULARLY INTERSPACED SHORT PALINDROMIC REPEATS (CRISPR elements) that function in conjunction with CRISPR-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS (Cas proteins). Several types have been distinguished, including Type I, Type II, and Type III, based on signature motifs of CRISPR-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
Systems that provide for the maintenance of life in an isolated living chamber through reutilization of the material available, in particular, by means of a cycle wherein exhaled carbon dioxide, urine, and other waste matter are converted chemically or by photosynthesis into oxygen, water, and food. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN) including ANGOLA; BENIN; BOTSWANA; BURKINA FASO; CABO VERDE; CAMEROON; CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC; CHAD; CONGO; COTE D'IVOIRE; DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO; DJIBOUTI; EQUATORIAL GUINEA; ERITREA; ESWATINI; ETHIOPIA; GABON; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; KENYA; LESOTHO; LIBERIA; MALAWI; MALI; MAURITANIA; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; RWANDA; SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; SOMALIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SOUTH SUDAN; SUDAN; TANZANIA; TOGO; UGANDA; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.