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Book Cover
Author Silber, Sherman J.

Title How to get pregnant / Sherman J. Silber.

Publication Info. New York : Little, Brown and Co., [2005]


Location Call No. Status
 Canton Public Library - Adult Department  616.692 SILBER    Check Shelf
Edition Revised edition.
Description xliv, 467 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references and index.
Contents Preface. The infertility epidemic -- The importance of understanding your biological clock -- Misleading diagnoses of the cause of your infertility -- The simple unexplainable effect of age -- The endometriosis myth -- The male factor and varicocele myth -- IVF and ICSI bypass everything that can go wrong no matter what the so-called diagnosis is -- Change in thinking since the early 1980s -- Progress in male infertility -- Even men who don't make sperm can have children -- Egg donation -- Can you save your eggs for later? -- How can I be sure my baby will be normal? -- Achieving pregnancy without the new technology -- Where do we go for help? --
1. Getting pregnant naturally -- A brief review of female anatomy -- How do the egg and the sperm reach the fallopian tube? -- Ejaculation into the vagina -- Sperm invasion -- Capacitation of sperm -- Ovulation -- Formation of the follicle -- Release of the egg -- Production of progesterone -- A review of the hormones that control ovulation and the menstrual cycle -- How a primitive region of the brain called the hypothalamus controls the menstrual cycle -- Clinical importance of GnRH release from the brain for IVF -- How do hormones genetically prepared the egg for fertilization? -- Reduction division (meiosis) of the egg's chromosomes -- Development of the egg during growth of the follicle -- Resumption of meiosis after the LH surge -- Penetration of the egg by a sperm -- Completion of meiosis and union of the male and female genes -- Early development of the fertilized egg -- Pregnancy testing -- 2. Why are humans so infertile? -- Humans don't know when to have sex -- Why is sex in the human so reproductively inefficient? -- Seasonal timing of sex -- Reproductive inadequacy of the human male -- Is the environment causing the human sperm count to go down? -- Monogamy and lack of sperm competition -- Our worldwide infertility epidemic -- Human destiny and infertility -- Infectious diseases -- What can I do? --
3. Beating your biological clock : antral follicle counts -- Age-related decline in a woman's fertility -- Most infertile women were once fertile -- Where are you on your biological clock? -- Age-related decline in fertility is due to loss of your egg supply -- Evidence that it is your ovary, not you -- What IVF pregnancy rates tell us about how the ovary ages -- You can freeze your eggs (and even your ovary) for later -- Tests for ovarian reserve -- Day three FSH and estradiol -- Day three inhibin B level -- Clomid challenge test -- Antral follicle count -- How does the biological clock work? -- What you were born with -- Antral follicles and your ovarian reserve -- Emergence of the dominant single follicle during a normal ovulatory monthly cycle -- Antral follicle count studies -- Antral follicle count and number of eggs left in your ovary -- Antral follicle count and your age -- Antral follicle count and your remaining years of fertility -- Is there anything that can preserve the declining follicle pool in your ovaries? -- Aggressive ovarian surgery can hurt your biological clock -- Antral follicle count and older women -- What if I already had a child but want more? -- Antral follicle count and counseling older infertile patients -- How is a woman's endowment of eggs determined at birth? -- Summary --
4. Are we infertile? : simpler treatments -- How long does it normally take to get pregnant and how do we know when to look for help? -- Probability of conception per month in fertile couples -- After what period of time does not getting pregnant mean we're infertile? -- Proper timing of intercourse -- Clomid (clomiphene citrate) -- Parlodel (bromocriptine) -- Endometriosis -- What is endometriosis? -- Drug treatment for endometriosis -- Surgery for endometriosis, watch out! -- Surgery for blocked tubes and pelvic scarring -- Conclusions -- 5. Figuring out what's wrong : tests on the female -- History and physical -- Irregular periods and oily skin -- Too fat or too thin -- Am I ovulating? -- Basal body temperatures (BBT) -- The monthly cycle -- Blood hormone tests -- Effect of the brain on the hormonal cycle -- LH urine dipstick -- Ultrasound -- Ploycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) -- X-ray of uterus and tubes (hysterosalpingogram) -- Laparoscopy -- Idiopathic infertility --
6. Emotions and infertility (evidenced based) -- Popular myths about emotions and infertility -- Does infertility cause emotional tension, or does emotional tension cause infertility? -- Anxiety caused by trying to time your intercourse -- Anxiety causing you to hurry into worthless and potentially damaging treatment -- The effect of emotions on IVF success -- The effect of emotional calm on your body -- IVF embryo transfer and emotions -- How to avoid difficult embryo transfers -- Relaxation techniques -- 7. How the male works -- The male myth -- Function of the testicles -- Sperm production, the assembly line -- What can be done to stimulate greater sperm production? : nothing! -- Hormone testing for men -- How sperm reach the ejaculate -- Leaving the testicles -- What happens to sperm in the epididymis? -- The ejaculate -- Testicular temperature -- Sperm count -- What are sperm? -- Does saving it up help? -- How many sperm? -- Motility of the sperm -- The shape (morphology) of the sperm -- The semen -- How many sperm are really necessary for a man to be fertile? -- The hamster test and other wastes of time and money -- Whose fault is it, the husband's or the wife's? -- The tragedy of not treating the whole couple -- The varicocele myth --
8. Sperm washing, intrauterine insemination (IUI), and ovarian stimulation -- Sperm washing and IUI -- Several methods of sperm washing -- Intrauterine insemination (IUI) of washed sperm -- Ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins -- Lupron (or GnRH agonist) to prevent premature LH surge -- How are HMG and FSH (gonadotropins) made? -- Monitoring HMG or FSH treatment and timing when to give HCG -- Indications and directions for using HMG -- Progesterone injections -- Using birth control pills for timing the cycle -- Comparison of the different stimulation protocols and drugs -- Recombinant FSH versus menopausal gonadotropins -- Step-up and step-down protocols -- Minidose lupron -- GnRH antagonist protocols -- Ovarian stimulation for timed intercourse or IUI versus ovarian stimulation for IVF -- Hyperstimulation syndrome -- No increased risk of ovarian cancer -- Multiple births and selective reduction -- Subsequent pregnancies without treatment -- 9. IVF (in vitro fertilization) -- Improvement in IVF pregnancy rates -- Ovarian stimulation protocols and egg retrieval -- Egg and embryo culturing techniques -- Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) -- Longer culturing -- Assisted hatching -- Embryo transfer -- Improving IVF results when there is tubal disease -- Rationale for doing IVF sooner in all cases of infertility --
10. Step-by-step details of your IVF cycle -- Obtaining the eggs -- Preparation of the sperm -- Culture techniques for egg and sperm -- Culture media -- CO₂ incubator -- Culture dishes and test tubes designed to keep pH constant when out of incubator -- Osmolality of media -- Temperature -- Protein -- Sequential culture media -- Egg handling after retrieval from ovary -- Culturing the sperm and eggs, and embryo transfer -- Embryo freezing -- Embryo quality and embryo selection -- How many embryos to transferred? -- Selective reduction -- 11. ICSI, the long-sought solution to male infertility -- How the ICSI technique was invented -- The meeting in Adelaide -- The type of patients who need ICSI -- Are all types of male infertility equally treatable with ICSI? -- The role of the egg in normal fertilization -- Pitfalls of sperm injection -- Avoiding damage to the egg nucleus and spindle -- The membrane is invaginated by the injection pipette but not broken -- Catching the sperm -- Problem of the sperm swimming around inside the egg substance -- Step-by-step details of the ICSI procedure -- Step 1 : preparation of the eggs -- Step 2 : preparation of the sperm -- Step 3 : setting up the injection dish -- Step 4 : the pipettes used for injection -- Step 5 : picking up the sperm, breaking the tail, and injecting it into the egg -- Step 6 : checking for fertilization and cleavage -- ICSI for male infertility versus trying to increase the sperm count -- Obstructive azoospermia -- Nonobstructive azoospermia -- Should ICSI be used for all IVF cycles? --
12. Will my baby by normal? -- IVF statistics and your biological clock -- Fears about IVF offspring not related to age -- First published studies on risk to offspring from IVF or ICSI -- Risks associated with multiple pregnancy -- Incidence of birth defects in ICSI and IVF offspring -- Compared to spontaneously conceived children : the Brussels study -- Understanding genes and chromosomes -- An abnormal number of chromosomes causes Down syndrome and miscarriage -- How your aging eggs develop chromosome errors -- Is it the egg or the sperm that is at fault? -- Chromosomal errors (aneuploidy) versus single-gene defects -- Chromosomal translocations and infertility -- Sex-chromosomal aneuploidies -- Severely infertile males and sex-chromosomal aneuploidy -- Chromosomal abnormalities in infertile men and women, and in their ICSI and IVF children -- Transmission of infertility to IVF and ICSI offspring -- Inheritance of male infertility -- The X and the Y chromosome and male infertility -- Inheritance of female infertility --
13. How to make sure your baby is normal : preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) -- Preimplantation embryo biopsy with genetic diagnosis -- What is embryo biopsy? -- Is there a risk from embryo biopsy? -- Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to analyze the embryo -- PGD for chromosome defects -- How defective meiosis causes Down syndrome and miscarriage -- Chromosome errors and the biological clock -- It is not always the egg -- Embryo quality and chromosome abnormalities -- Preventing specific genetic diseases -- PGD to prevent Down syndrome : FISH -- PGD for preventing autosomal-recessive gene disease : cystic fibrosis -- PGD for preventing muscular dystrophy : x-linked versus autosomal-dominant disease -- PGD for preventing Marfan's syndrome -- Genetic prevention of early onset Alzheimer's -- Huntington's disease -- Predisposition toward cancer and Rh disease -- X-linked disease -- PGD for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) tissue typing : having a baby who can save the life of her dying sister -- DNA fingerprinting, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), linked markers, and PGD -- Conclusion -- 14. Understanding and preventing miscarriage -- Chromosome errors cause most miscarriages -- Screening embryos for chromosomal errors -- Aneuploidy versus chaotic mosaicism -- Preventing miscarriage caused by chromosomal translocations -- PGD errors -- Miscarriages not caused by chromosome errors -- Thrombophilia and folic acid -- Cervical incompetence -- Uterine abnormalities --
15. Reversing vasectomy, sperm blockage, and tubal ligation -- Vasectomy reversal and microsurgery -- Why do men want to reverse their vasectomy? -- The "simple" microsurgical operation to reconnect the vas deferens -- How does vasectomy affect the ducts of the testicle? -- Length of time since vasectomy -- With modern vasectomies, blowouts occur much sooner -- How is the epididymal blockage bypassed? -- Recovery of fertility after vasectomy reversal -- ICSI with retrieved sperm -- Obstruction to sperm outflow in patients who have not had a vasectomy -- Testicle biopsy -- Microsurgical vasoepididymostomy -- Congenital absence of the vas deferens -- TESE-ICSI versus microsurgical vasoepididymostomy -- Reversal of tubal ligation -- Comparison of tubal sterilization in the female to vasectomy in the male -- Methods of blocking the tubes -- Reversal of tubal sterilization -- How the type of sterilization affects the technique for reversal -- What factors affect successful sterilization reversal? -- How difficult is tubal reversal surgery for the patient? -- 16. Donor sperm -- Is it my baby? -- How to select the donor -- Frozen sperm and sperm banks -- Insemination with donor sperm or ICSI with donor sperm -- 17. Egg donation and gestational surrogacy -- Surrogate uterus (your mother can have your kids for you) -- How it is done? -- Egg donation (you can get pregnant after menopause) -- How is it done? -- 18. The controversy over IVF, cloning, and stem cells -- Cloning -- Exposing the hype -- How cloning developed -- The biology of cloning -- Stem cells -- Knockout mice -- Use of stem cells to cure human disease.
Subject Infertility -- Popular works.
Human reproductive technology -- Popular works.
ISBN 0316011363
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